6th, 7th & 8th Grades | Skills & Concepts PLUS Curriculum Top Picks

6th, 7th & 8th Grades | Skills & Concepts PLUS Curriculum Top Picks - My Teaching Library | MyTeachingLibrary.com
What should you teach in 6th, 7th & 8th Grades?
Below you’ll find the Skills and Concepts typically covered for these grades PLUS Curriculum Top Picks!
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Language Arts | Reading, Grammar, Writing, Speaking

6th Grade
  • – Uses evidence from the text in order to summarize the plot, make inferences about and analyze the text, and determine the central theme or themes in a text.
  • – Understands and explains the point of view in a text as well as the significance of certain words and passages in a text.
  • – Understands and relays the main thesis or claims of a non-fiction text and its supporting evidence.
  • – Reads and compares different texts and different genres of texts which address the same topics.
  • – Uses a variety of media and formats, including video and audio, to further enhance his/ her understanding of a topic or text.
  • – Demonstrate an understanding of conventions within language study: dialects, clauses, phrases
  • – Demonstrates ability to participate in group discussions expressing the ideas and skills learned.
  • – Practices a variety of vocabulary skills, including using the context in which a word is found to determine the meaning of words, recognizing roots of words, and using digital and physical reference materials (dictionaries, thesauruses, and glossaries).
  • – Construct and apply simile/metaphor, idiom, analogy
  • – Construct and apply structural analysis: root words, affixes, and derivatives.
  • – Develop an understanding of author’s craft: e.g., irony, foreshadowing, flashback, point of view, etc
  • – Writes using more complex vocabulary and about more complex content.
  • – Writes for an extended period of time such as long-term research or writing pieces that may take a week.
  • – Writes a variety of genres for a variety of audiences.
  • – Writes structured and well-organized opinion, research, and informative pieces that:
    •    a. Use supporting claims and evidence that are based on credible texts and resources.
    •    b. Include an introduction, conclusion, and transitions.
    •    c. Integrate other forms of media and formats, such as graphs, charts, headings, and audio or video when appropriate.
  • – Writes well-structured narratives (both true and fiction) that include:
    •    a. Descriptive detail of characters, settings, and experiences.
    •    b. Dialogue.
    •    c. A clear structure with a logical order and flow, dialogue, and details and descriptions of characters, setting and experiences, thought-out word choice, and a conclusion.
  • – Plans, revises, and edits writing, specifically with guidance from teachers and peers.
  • – Writes pieces that express the reading skills achieved, including analysis of text, making comparisons and claims, and developing arguments using specific evidence.
  • – Uses technology and the Internet to produce and publish writing, work with others, and type a minimum of three pages in one sitting.
  • – Demonstrate oral language by presenting information effectively.
  • – Identify persuasive techniques.
7th Grade
  • – Analyzes texts using the text as evidence to support the analysis.
  • – Makes inferences about texts and uses evidence from the text to support the inferences.
  • – Understands the message or ideas in a text and uses evidence to support these claims.
  • – Understands, tracks the progress of, and summarizes the main idea of a text, using evidence from the text.
  • – Analyzes and explains the relationship between different elements such as character and setting.
  • – Analyzes the impact of specific language and word choice used in a text.
  • – Extend understanding through similes, metaphors, idiom, imagery, onomatopoeia, alliteration, personification.
  • – Understands how the different structures used in a text, such as poetry or drama, affect the text.
  • – Compares and contrasts the different perspectives and points of views in a text.
  • – Determines the author’s point of view in a text using evidence from the text.
  • – Compares different versions such as a stage version, film, or audio version of a text, paying specific attention to the way in which elements such as lighting, scenery, or audio sounds affect the message of the text.
  • – Compares a historical account of an event, person, or place with a historical fiction text about the same period.
  • – Read a variety of texts, including stories, poetry, drama, non-fiction, or informative texts.
  • – Compares multiple texts written by different authors about the same topic and determines how their different perspectives are presented through their presentation of facts and the inferences they make.
  • – Writes arguments that present clear reasons and relevant evidence and include:
    •    a. Introductions;
    •    b. Acknowledgements of opposing claims;
    •    c. Logical and orderly presentations of and reasons and evidence;
    •    d. The use of appropriate transitions, words, and phrases to connect claims;
    •    e. A concluding sentence or paragraph which supports the argument made; and
    •    f. A formal tone and style.
  • – Writes structured and well organized opinion, research, and informative pieces that:
    •    a. Use supporting claims and evidence that are based on credible texts and resources;
    •    b. Include an introduction that has an explanation of what follows;
    •    c. Develop topics through the use of facts, detailed quotations, and examples and subject specific terms and definitions;
    •    d. Include transitions that connect concepts and paragraphs;
    •    e. Include a conclusion that supports the presented idea(s);
    •    f. Maintain a formal “essay type” style; and
    •    g. Integrate other forms of media and formats, such as graphs, charts, headings, and audio or video when appropriate.
  • – Writes well-structured narratives (both true and fiction) that include:
    •     a. A narrator, characters, and a point of view;
    •     b. Descriptive detail and sensory language to describe characters, settings, and experiences;
    •     c. Dialogue details and descriptions of characters, setting, and experiences;
    •     d. A clear structure with a logical order and flow, as shown through the use of transition words; and
    •     e. A conclusion that is connected to and builds on the narrative.
  • – Plans, revises, and edits writing, specifically with guidance from teachers and peers, focusing specifically on trying new approaches and making sure the writing has a purpose and appeals to its audience.
  • – Uses technology and the Internet to produce and publish writing.
  • – Works with others and cites sources.
  • – Works on multiple, short research projects that answer a specific question and cite multiple sources, while gathering additional questions for later research.
  • – Uses both print and digital resources to conduct research, focusing on using appropriate search terms and reliable sources.
  • – Uses quotes and a standard format for citation.
  • – Uses research to analyze and make inferences.
  • – Demonstrate oral language by presenting information effectively
8th Grade
  • – Evaluates the evidence in texts to determine the strongest supports of an idea and analysis.
  • – Determines the main idea or theme of a text using evidence from the text to support it.
  • – Provides an objective summary of a text.
  • – Understands, summarizes, and tracks the progress of the main idea of a text, using evidence from the text.
  • – Analyzes how elements such as specific dialogue, events, or word usage impact the characters and the decisions they make and other events and actions in the text.
  • – Understands the use of language in a text, including figurative language, analogies, and allusions to other texts.
  • – Demonstrate an understanding of author’s craft (e.g, irony, foreshadowing, flashback, point of view, etc.
  • – Compares and contrasts the different structures of texts including the structures of paragraphs and sentences.
  • – Analyzes the difference between characters’ points of views and how these differences affect the text.
  • – Analyzes the pros and cons of using different forms of text and media to present a topic or idea.
  • – Compares a text to a film or play version of a text, paying specific attention to the way in which the film or play veers from the text.
  • – Analyzes how a modern text builds on or uses themes from other historical or older texts such as myths or the Bible.
  • – Analyzes texts which include conflicting information on the same topic and decipher when those are due to conflicting facts or interpretations.
  • – Writes arguments which present clear reasons and relevant evidence and include:
    •     a. Introductions;
    •     b. Acknowledgements of opposing claims;
    •     c. Logical and orderly presentations of reasons and evidence;
    •     d. Graphics, special formatting, and multimedia, when appropriate;
    •     e. Support of the claims through the use of evidence from credible sources;
    •     f. A concluding sentence or paragraph which supports the argument made; and
    •     g. A formal tone and style.
  • – Writes structured and well-organized opinion, research, and informative pieces that:
    •     a. Use supporting claims and evidence that are based on credible texts and resources;
    •     b. Provide an introduction which includes an explanation of what follows;
    •     c. Develop topics through the use of facts, details, quotations, examples, and subject-specific terms and definitions;
    •     d. Include transitions that connect concepts, events, and paragraphs;
    •     e. Include a conclusion that supports the presented idea(s);
    •     f. Maintain a formal “essay type” style; and
    •     g. Integrate other forms of media and formats such as graphs, charts, headings, and audio or video when appropriate.
  • – Writes well-structured narratives (both true and fiction) that include:
    •     a. A narrator, characters, and a point of view;
    •     b. Descriptive detail and sensory language to describe characters, settings, and experiences;
    •     c. Dialogue, pacing, reflection, and details and descriptions of characters, setting, and experiences;
    •     d. Thought-out word choice;
    •     e. A clear structure with a logical order and flow, as shown through the use of transition words and phrases and a logical sequence; and
    •     f. A conclusion that is connected to and builds on the narrative.
  • – Plans, revises, and edits writing, specifically with guidance from teachers and peers, focusing specifically on trying new approaches, and making sure the writing has a purpose and appeals to its audience.
  • – Uses technology and the Internet to produce and publish writing, work with others, and cite sources.
  • – Works on multiple, short research projects which answer a specific question and cite multiple sources, while gathering additional questions for later research.
  • – Uses both print and digital resources to conduct research, focusing on using appropriate search terms and reliable sources.
  • – Uses quotes and a standard format for citation.
  • – Uses research to analyze and make inferences.
  • – Understand conventions within language study: research, oral delivery, reference tools, parts of speech
  • – Demonstrate oral language by presenting information effectively
Curriculum Top Picks:

(All resources are FREE to ALL-ACCESS members | Non-Members pay listed prices)

6th Grade

Language Arts 1 | Student Edition
Language Arts 1 | Teacher’s Guide
Daily Vocabulary for Middle School
Latin Word Roots | Reference
Advanced Novel Study | Holes
Generic Novel Study Unit Activities | Reading Comprehension
Pride and Prejudice Novel Study 
Research Paper | Topic Selection and Thesis Statement Guide
Layered Research Assignment

7th Grade

Language Arts 2 | Student Edition
Language Arts 2 | Teacher’s Guide 
Daily Vocabulary for Middle School (If not completed in 6th grade)
Latin Word Roots | Reference 
Daily Grammar for Middle School
Generic Novel Study Unit Activities | Reading Comprehension
The Hobbit – Novel Study
Research Paper | Topic Selection and Thesis Statement Guide
Layered Research Assignment

8th Grade

Language Arts 3 | Student Edition
Language Arts 3 | Teacher’s Guide
Latin Word Roots | Reference
Daily Grammar for Middle School (If not completed in the 7th grade)
Generic Novel Study Unit Activities | Reading Comprehension
Pride and Prejudice Novel Study 
Research Paper | Topic Selection and Thesis Statement Guide
Layered Research Assignment

Additional Resources for Advanced Students:

Poems Teachers Ask For – Volume 1
Poems Teachers Ask For – Volume 2
Literature By Author

Literature Companion Studies

Search ALL AVAILABLE Resources for 6th, 7th & 8th Grades here.

Math

General Concepts & Skills
(Grade 6)
a. Divides fractions by fractions.
b. Solves equations using ratios and rates or percentages.
c. Solves equations with negative numbers.
d. Multiplies and divides multi-digit numbers.
e. Finds common factors and multiples.
f. Understands and talk about ratios using mathematical language. For example, the ratio of girls to boys in the class is 2:3.
g. Solves algebraic equations with one variable and explains how these equations were solved.
h. Solves geometry equations related to surface area, area, and volume as applied to real-world situations.
i. Develops skills in statistical analysis and applies statistical concepts, including mean, median, variability, and range.
j. Analyzes mathematical data, thinking about how data was collected and looking at patterns in the data, including clusters, peaks, gaps, and symmetry.
k. Explains the process used and thinking behind how problems and equations are solved.

(Grade 7)
a. Solves equations using percentages that pertain to real-life examples, such as discounts, taxes, interest, and tips.
b. Graphs different proportions in order to compare them and analyze the steepness of the line that is graphed (which is referred to as the “slope”).
c. Uses equations to show the relationship between proportions.
d. Understands equations related to the distance between positive and negative numbers and negative and negative numbers.
e. Understands that a positive and negative number can equal 0. For example, 2 + -2 = 0.
f. Adds, subtracts, multiplies, and divides negative numbers.
g. Analyzes scale drawings (drawings that represent real-life objects, such as cars or buildings and their measurements) in order to solve equations about them.
h. Understands that an increase by 5 percent is the same thing as multiplying that number by 0.05.
i. Solves multi-step equations that include different forms of numbers, such as fractions, decimals, and percentages.
j. Uses statistics specifically to understand and infer information about a group or sample as well as compare 2 different groups or samples.
k. Graphs statistics and uses the graph to further analyze a group(s) or sample(s).
l. Predicts the probability of something based on collected data.

(Grade 8)
a. Solves linear equations, which are equations that make a straight line when graphed and are expressed as y = mx + b.
b. Uses linear expressions to compare data that has two variables.
c. Compares the lines graphed by two linear expressions and determines whether they are parallel, intersect, or are the same.
d. Understands that there are rational and irrational numbers.
e. Solves equations with integers which are whole numbers, both positive and negative.
f. Solves equations with radicals which are “roots,” such as square roots.
g. Understands, compares and solves equations with functions which are usually expressed as f(n) and represent the relationships between an input and an output.
h. Learns the concept of congruence (equal length) and similarity (when two objects have the same angles and are proportionate) through the use of models, transparencies, or software.
i. Understands and solves equations using the Pythagorean Theorem: a2 +b2 = c2
j. 
Solves equations about the volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres specifically as applied in real-world ways.
k. Provides the thinking behind and the reasoning for how problems are solved, and critiques others’ reasoning.

Number Sense & Operations
(Grade 6)
a. Represent very large positive numbers and very small positive numbers
b. Model computations with integers (e.g. number line, tiles)
c. Solve problems involving ratios and proportions and computations with whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and percents; Estimate and check the results of computations
d. Apply Order of Operations
e. Apply number theory concepts (e.g. GCF, LCM, divisibility)
f. Write numbers in expanded and exponential notation (e.g. powers of 10)
g. Model, compare, order, and position integers (e.g. on a number line)

(Grade 7)
a. Represent numbers in scientific notation
b. Compare, order, estimate, and translate among integers, fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, and percents
c. Compute with fractions, decimals, percents, and integers
d. Model and solve problems involving ratios and proportions
e. Apply order of operations, including with exponents
f. Identify properties of operations and use inverse relationships to solve problems
g. Apply number theory concepts (e.g. prime factorization, GCF, LCM)

(Grade 8)
a. Define and apply common irrational numbers (e.g. Pi, Square root of 2)
b. Apply powers and roots to the solution of problems
c. Estimate and compute with fractions (algebraically), decimals, percents, and integers
d. Solve problems involving ratios and proportions (e.g. unit rates, scale factors, rates of change)
e. Identify properties of operations on integers and rational numbers (e.g. closure, associative, commutative, distributive, identity, inverse)

 

Patterns, Relations, & Algebra
(Grade 6)
a. Analyze and determine rules for extending geometric and numeric patterns
b. Use patterns and functions to solve problems; Demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of variables, expressions, and equations
c. Solve simple linear equations using concrete models, tables, graphs, and paper-and-pencil methods
d. Create and interpret graphical sketches representing real events; Represent mathematical relationships with concrete materials, tables, graphs, and verbal rules

(Grade 7)
a. Analyze and determine rules for extending geometric and numeric patterns
b. Represent numeric and geometric patterns using models, tables, graphs, rules, and algebraic expressions and equations
c. Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of a function
d. Use patterns and functions to represent and solve problems
e. Write expressions and equations for problem situations
f. Evaluate and simplify variable expressions
g. Solve and graph simple equations and inequalities

(Grade 8)
a. Represent and analyze a variety of numeric and geometric patterns
b. Use tables and graphs to compare linear and exponential growth patterns
c. Write expressions and equations for problem situations
d. Evaluate and simplify algebraic expressions
e. Solve and graph linear equations and inequalities
f. Identify roles of variables in equations
g. Identify slope and y-intercept of a line from its equation, tables, and graph
h. Apply the concept of slope to the solution of problems
i. Explain how a change in one variable effects a change in another

 

Geometry
(Grade 6)
a. Identify, compare, describe, and classify polygons
b. Describe and perform transformations on shapes
c. Determine congruency
d. Draw shapes from different perspectives
e. Measure, describe, construct, and classify various angles and triangles
f. Draw and describe the relationships among points, lines, segments, and planes
g. Graph points on the coordinate plane

(Grade 7)
a. Classify figures (e.g. polygons, circles); Apply properties of congruence and similarity
b. Perform, and analyze the effect of, transformations on the coordinate plane
c. Draw figures from different perspectives
d. Explain and apply Pi

(Grade 8)
a. Use technology and construction tools to formulate and test conjectures about 2- and 3-dimensional figures and to make geometric constructions
b. Explore and apply relationships found in right triangles
c. Apply Pythagorean Theorem
d. Analyze the effects of transformations on figures on the coordinate plane

Measurement
(Grade 6)
a. Demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of radius, diameter, circumference, Pi and area of a circle
b. Apply area, perimeter, and volume to the solution of problems
c. Find the areas of parallelograms and triangles
d. Find the sum of angles in polygons
e. Solve problems involving proportional relationships and units of measure (e.g. unit conversions, scale models, map scales).

(Grade 7)
a. Find the area and perimeter (circumference) of polygons and circles; Find surface area and volume of common 3- dimensional figures
b. Select, convert, and use appropriate units of measurement or scale
c. Apply rates and indirect measures

(Grade 8)
a. Apply formulas and procedures to problems involving perimeter, area, surface area, and volume
b. Use ratio and proportion to solve measurement problems (e.g. indirect measures, similar plane figures)

Data Analysis, Probability, Statistics
(Grade 6)
a. Collect, organize, display, and analyze data to solve problems
b. Construct and interpret tables, bar graphs, line graphs, line plots, and stem and leaf plots
c. Apply mean, mode, median, and range.

(Grade 7)
a. Collect and organize data systematically
b. Represent data in line and bar graphs, stem and leaf plots, scatter plots, histograms, and circle graphs
c. Analyze data using mean, median, and mode
d. Use tree diagrams and organized lists to compute probabilities.

(Grade 8)
a. Collect and organize data, representing data in tables, charts, scatter plots, Venn Diagrams, histograms, circle graphs and box plots; Make inferences and draw conclusions based on that data
b. Identify most appropriate measure of central tendency
c. Compute permutations and combinations
d. Use tree diagrams, tables, lists, and area models to describe sample spaces and to calculate probabilities of independent and dependent events

 

Science

General Concepts & Skills

– Plans and conducts investigations and experiments.
– Applies the scientific method in order to practice like a scientist:
a. Observes and researches.
b. Develops a hypothesis (based on observations and research).
c. Make predictions.
d. Experiments and follows multi-step processes and instructions in order to conduct experiments.
e. Develops a conclusion.
f. Compares the results of an experiment to what is written about the topic in a text.
– Analyzes and interprets data.
– Uses measurement and mathematical computations while working with data.
– Develops and presents explanations for processes and practices used and results obtained.
– Determines the main ideas of a scientific text and sites specific evidence to support ideas and claims about scientific texts.
​- Learns topic specific science vocabulary.
​- Analyzes relevant charts, diagrams, and graphs about a scientific topic.

Earth Science
(Grade 6)
a. Recognize, interpret, and create models of earth’s physical features in maps.
b. Understand occurrences of earthquakes and volcanoes.
c. Distinguish between erosion and decomposition.
d. Describe glacial impact on land.
e. Identify the phases of the moon; describe lunar/solar eclipses; explain the causes of night/day and seasons.
f. Describe the formation of mountains, plains, and plateaus and identify them on topographic maps
g. Describe how water moves through the hydrologic cycle in the air and ground
h. Compare the change in earth’s surface through erosion and glaciation
i. Explain how heat movement in the earth generates earth- quakes and volcanoes
j. Compare the movement of waves through space, air, water, and land

(Grade 7)
a. Explain how earthquakes and volcanoes result from the buildup of pressure inside Earth
b. Compare and contrast earthquake faults and seismic waves
c. Describe several ways minerals are formed
d. Explain how rocks change using the rock cycle diagram Identify the three types of rocks
e. Perform mineral tests and identify minerals by hardness, color, streak, cleavage, and fracture floor and shore zones
f. Compare and contrast three different fossil fuels in terms of source, use and their environmental effects
g. Classify energy resources as either renewable or nonrenewable
h. Describe the composition and structure of Earth’s atmosphere.

(Grade 8)
a. Explain the role of water vapor in the atmosphere and how it affects weather
b. Explain why high & low pressure systems usually bring clear & cloudy weather respectively
c. Describe the movement of ocean waves, currents and the cause of tides
d. Describe the origin of ocean water and explain why the salinity of the ocean does not change
e. Describe evidence used to support the hypothesis of continental drift
f. Relate the occurrences of earthquakes and volcanoes to plate tectonics
g. Explain the conditions necessary for fossils to form and methods used to date rock layers
h. Explain one hypothesis of how the solar system formed
i. Differentiate between comets, asteroids, and meteors
j. Explain the process by which a star produces energy and its brightness, color and temperature
k. Describe a galaxy and list three main types of galaxies

Life Science
(Grade 6)
a. Classify organisms into kingdoms; classify organisms according to cell composition; identify the levels of organization in life forms; classify plants/animals.
b.Explore the digestive system of animals
c. Give examples of ways organisms interact and have distinct functions within ecosystems; identify ways ecosystems have changed over time
d. Describe a food chain and roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers.
e. Describe the process of photosynthesis.

(Grade 7)
a. Classify organisms into kingdoms; classify organisms according to cell composition; identify the levels of organization in life forms; classify plants/animals.
b. Explore the digestive system of animals
c. Give examples of ways organisms interact and have distinct functions within ecosystems; identify ways ecosystems have changed over time
d. Describe a food chain and roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers.
e. Describe the process of photosynthesis.
f. Describe the parts and function of the nervous system and the endocrine system
g. Describe the structure and function of the human respiratory system
h. Explain cellular respiration and its relationship to gas exchange in your body
i. Identify the parts and functions of a typical cell
j. Compare and contrast plant and animal cells
k. Describe the function of the cell membrane. Compare and contrast osmosis and diffusion
l. Identify levels of organization in life-forms from cell to tissue, organ, organ system, organism
m. Describe the path of blood through the heart, lungs, and body
n. Compare and contrast the circulatory systems of fish, birds, amphibians, and mammals
o. Compare and contrast types of bones, muscles, joints, ligaments and cartilage and their movements

(Grade 8)
a. Describe ways in which organisms are adapted to life in intertidal zones
b. Identify different types of nutrients and describe the importance of each in your diet
c. Describe what happens to food as it passes through each organ of the digestive system
d. Describe plasma, red and white blood cells, and hemoglobin in the blood and explain their functions
e. Explain the natural defenses your body has against disease
f. Describe the process of meiosis and contrast chromosome number in body cells and sex cells
g. Compare and contrast reproduction in plants and animals

Physical Science
(Grade 6)
a. Differentiate between weight/mass and volume/mass; define density; understand accuracy, precision, sensitivity of measuring tools; use scientific notation.
b.Compare and contrast physical properties of metals, non- metals, and metalloids.

(Grade 7)
a. Describe the relationships between force, mass, and acceleration using Newton’s Laws
b. Demonstrate Archimedes’ Principle related to buoyancy of objects in a liquid
c. Explain how work can produce kinetic energy, potential energy, and thermal energy
d. Describe and apply the Law of Conservation of Energy
e. Trace the source of the energy that runs appliances
f. Identify the six types of simple machines and calculate their mechanical advantage
g. Describe the difference between temperature and heat. Give examples of conduction, convection and radiation
h. Describe the physical properties metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
i. Compare the relationships involving changes in pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas
j. Identify and describe several chemical reactions
k. Describe the difference between reactants and products, energy and catalyst in a chemical reaction

(Grade 8)
a. Distinguish electrical conductors from insulators
b. Control the amount of current in a circuit and list the variables that determine electrical resistance
c. Make an electromagnet and demonstrate its magnetic effects
d. Explain how loudspeakers and electric motors work
e. Compare and contrast the characteristics of waves in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum
f. Describe how various observations of color and light can be explained by the wave model
g. Relate the contributions of Thomson, Rutherford and others to the study of the structure of the atom
h. Trace the development of the model of the atom and its parts
i. Describe the arrangement of the elements in the periodic table. Identify where metals, nonmetals, and metalloids are located on the periodic table
j. Describe ionic and covalent bonds
k. Explain how to determine oxidation numbers. Write formulas for compounds from their names
l. Demonstrate how to write a balanced chemical equation
m. Describe four types of chemical reactions, using their general formulas
n. Discuss melting and boiling in terms of kinetic theory
o. Describe the states of matter in terms of kinetic theory
p. Describe and draw the structure of an alcohol, a carboxylic acid, and an amine
q. Compare and contrast proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids and polymers
r. Compare and contrast a nuclear Fission and Fusion reaction

Engineering/Technology
(Grades, 6, 7, 8)
a. Identify materials used to accomplish a task based on a specific property (e.g. rocks and minerals—building and electronics).
b. Identify appropriate units and tools to construct a give prototype; identify design features.
c. Compare and contrast simple and complex machines.

Social Studies

General Concepts & Skills
(By the end of Grade 8)
– Use critical reasoning skills to analyse and evaluate claims:
a. Analyze positions and evidence supporting an issue or an event.
b. Evaluate the logic of reasons for a position on an issue or event.

– Use inquiry-based research:
a. Create and use research questions to guide inquiry on an issue or event.
b. Evaluate the breadth, reliability, and credibility of primary and secondary sources to determine the need for new or additional information when researching an issue or event.

– Deliberates public issues:
a. Engage in discussion, analyzing multiple view- points on public issues.

– Creates a product that uses social studies content to support a thesis and presents the product in an appropriate manner to a meaningful audience:
a. Analyze multiple factors, make generaliza- tions, and interpret sources to formulate a thesis in a paper or presentation, while observing rules related to plagiarism and copyright.
b. Use appropriate format to cite sources within an essay, presentation, and reference page.

Civics
Key Idea: Understands key ideals and principles of the United States, including those in the Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and other foundational documents.
(Grade 6)
Explain how early works such as the Code of Justinian or the Magna Carta contributed to foundational documents of the United States.

(Grade 7)
Explain the structure of and key ideals set forth in fundamental documents, including the student’s state’s constitution (and, if any tribal treaties) with the United States government.

(Grade 8)
Explain key ideals and principles outlined in the Declaration of Independence, including life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; the U.S. Constitution, including the rule of law, separation of powers, representative government, and popular sovereignty; and, the Bill of Rights, including due process and freedom of expression.

Key Idea: Understands the purposes, organization, and function of governments, laws, and political systems.
(Grade 6)
Explain a variety of forms of government from the past or present.

(Grade 7)
Distinguish the structure, organization, powers, and limits of government at the local, state, and tribal levels.

(Grade 8)
a. Analyze the structure and powers of government at the national level.
b. Use knowledge of the function of government to analyze and address a political issue.
c. Evaluate the effectiveness of the system of checks and balances in the United States based on an event.
d. Demonstrate that the U.S. government includes concepts of both a democracy and a republic.

Key Idea: Understands the purposes, organization of tribal and international relationships and U.S. foreign policy.
(Grade 6)
Analyze how societies have interacted with one another.

(Grade 7)
a. Analyze how international agreements have affected the state in which the student lives.
b. Recognize that, according to the United States Constitution, treaties are “the supreme law of the land;” consequently, treaty rights supersede most state laws.
c. Explain elements of the agreements contained in one or more treaty agreements between tribes (with in their state, if applicable) and the United States.

(Grade 8)
a. Identify early examples of foreign policy between the United States and other nations.
b. Analyze how the United States has interacted with other countries.

Key Idea: Understands civic involvement.
(Grade 6)
Describe the historical origins of civic involvement.

(Grade 7)
a. Describe the relationship between the actions of people in their state and the ideals outlined in the  state’s constitution.
b. Employ strategies for civic involvement that address a state or local issue.

(Grade 8)
a. Analyze how a claim on an issue attempts to balance individual rights and the common good.
b. Employ strategies for civic involvement that address a national issue.

Economics
Key Idea: Understands that people have to make choices between wants and needs and evaluates the outcomes of those choices.
(Grade 6)
Analyze the costs and benefits of economic choices made by groups and individuals in the past or present.

(Grade 7)
Evaluate alternative approaches or solutions to current economic issues of their home state in terms of costs and benefits for different groups.

(Grade 8)
Analyze examples of how groups and individuals have considered profit and personal values in making economic choices in the past or present.

Key Idea: Understands how economic systems function
(Grade 6)
a. Describe the production, distribution, and consumption of goods, services, and resources in societies from the past or in the present.
b. Explain how scarce resources have affected in- ternational trade in the past or present.

(Grade 7)
Analyze how the forces of supply and demand have affected international trade in their home state in the past or present.

(Grade 8)
a. Analyze how the forces of supply and demand have affected the production, distribution, and consumption of goods, services, and resources in the United States in the past or present.
b. Analyze how the forces of supply and demand have affected international trade in the United States in the past or present.

Key Idea: Understands the government’s role in the economy
(Grade 6)
Explain the role of government in the world’s economies through the creation of money, taxation, and spending in the past or present.

(Grade 7)
Analyze the role of government in the economy of their home state state through taxation, spending, and policy setting in the past or present.

(Grade 8)
Analyze the influence of the U.S. government’s taxation, creation of currency, and tariffs in the past or present.

Key Idea: Understands the economic issues and problems that all societies face
(Grade 6)
a. Explain the distribution of wealth and sustainability of resources in the world.
b. Explain barriers to trade and how those barriers influence trade among nations.

(Grade 7)
a. Analyze the distribution of wealth and sustainability of resources in their home state
b. Explain the costs and benefits of trade policies to individuals, businesses, and society in their home state.

(Grade 8)
a. Analyze the distribution of wealth and sustainability of resources in the United States.
b. Explain the costs and benefits of trade policies to individuals, businesses, and society in the United States.

Geography
Key Idea: Understands the physical characteristics, cultural characteristics and location of places, regions, and spatial patterns on the Earth’s surface.
(Grade 6)
a. Construct and analyze maps using scale, direction, symbols, legends, and projections to gather information.
b. Identify the location of places and regions in the world and understand their physical and cultural characteristics.

(Grade 7)
a. Analyze maps and charts from a specific time period to understand an issue or event.
b. Explain how human spatial patterns have emerged from natural processes and human activities.

(Grade 8)
a. Explain and analyze physical and cultural characteristics of places and regions in the United States.
b. Use maps, satellite images, photographs, and other representations to explain relationships between the locations of places and regions and their political, cultural, and economic dynamics.

Key Idea: Understands human interaction with the environment.
(Grade 6)
a. Explain and analyze how the environment has affected people and how people have affected the environment in world history.
b. Explain the geographic factors that influence the movement of groups of people in world history.

(Grade 7)
a. Explain and analyze how the environment has affected people and how human actions modify the physical environment, and in turn, how the physical environment limits or promotes human activities in their home state in the past or present.
b. Explain the role of immigration in shaping societies in the past or present.
c. Explain examples of cultural diffusion in the world from the past or present.

(Grade 8)
a. Analyze how the environment has affected peo-ple and how people have affected the environment in the United States in the past or present.
b. Explain cultural diffusion in the United States from the past or in the present.
c. Explain and analyze migration as a catalyst for the growth of the United States in the past or present.

Key Idea: Understands the geographic context of global issues and events. 
(Grade 6)
Explain how learning about the geography of the world helps us understand global issues such as diversity, sustainability, and trade.

(Grade 7)
Explain how learning about the geography of their home state helps us understand global issues such as diversity, sustainability, and trade.

(Grade 8)
Explain how learning about the geography of the United States helps us understand global issues such as diversity, trade, and sustainability.

History
Key Idea: Understands historical chronology
(Grade 6)
a. Analyze different cultural measurements of time.
b. Explain how the rise of civilizations defines eras in world history in two or more regions of the world.
c. Explain how the rise of civilizations defines two or more eras.

(Grade 7)
a. Analyze a major historical event and how it is represented on timelines from different cultural perspectives, including those of indigenous people.
b. Explain how themes and developments have defined eras in their state history from statehood to the present.

(Grade 8)
Explain how themes and developments help to define eras in United States history from 1763 to 1877, including:

  • a. Fighting for independence (1763-1783)
  • b. Establishing the new nation (1781-1815)
  • c. Slavery, expansion, removal, and reform (1801-1850)
  • d. Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)
Key Idea: Understands and analyzes causal factors that have shaped major events in history
(Grade 6)
Explain and analyze how individuals, movements, cultural and ethnic groups, and technology from past civilizations have shaped world history.

(Grade 7)
a. Explain and analyze how individuals and movements have shaped their home state’s history since statehood.
b. Explain and analyze how technology and ideas have impacted their home state’s history since statehood.

(Grade 8)
a. Explain and analyze how individuals and move- ments have shaped United States history (1763-1877).
b. Explain and analyze how cultures and cultural and ethnic groups have contributed to United States history (1763-1877).
c. Explain and analyze how technology and ideas have impacted United States history (1763-1877).

Key Idea: Understands that there are multiple perspectives and interpretations of historical events.
(Grade 6)
a. Analyze and interpret historical materials from a variety of perspectives in world history.
b. Analyze multiple causal factors to create and support a claim about major events in world history.

(Grade 7)
Explain, analyze, and develop an argument about how their home state has been impacted by:

  • a. Individuals and movements.
  • b. Cultures and cultural groups.
  • c. Technology and ideas.

(Grade 8)
a. Analyze and interpret historical materials from a variety of perspectives in United States history (1763- 1877).
b. Analyze multiple causal factors to create posi- tions on major events in United States history (1763- 1877).

Key Idea: Understands how historical events inform analysis of contemporary issues and events.
(Grade 6)
Analyze how a historical event in world history helps us to understand contemporary issues and events.

(Grade 7)
Analyze how a historical event in their home state’s history helps us to understand contemporary issues and events.

(Grade 8)
Analyze how a historical event in United States history helps us to understand contemporary issues and events.